Assignment 3 - Software RAID

  • Deadline: Tuesday, 10 May 2022, 23:00
  • This assignment can be made in teams (max 2). Only one of them must submit the assignment, and the names of the student should be listed in a README file.

Implementing a software RAID module that uses a logical block device that will read and write data from two physical devices, ensuring the consistency and synchronization of data from the two physical devices. The type of RAID implemented will be similar to a RAID 1.

Assignment's Objectives

  • in-depth understanding of how the I/O subsystem works.
  • acquire advanced skills working with bio structures.
  • work with the block / disk devices in the Linux kernel.
  • acquire skills to navigate and understand the code and API dedicated to the I/O subsystem in Linux.


Write a kernel module that implements the RAID software functionality. Software RAID provides an abstraction between the logical device and the physical devices. The implementation will use RAID scheme 1.

The virtual machine has two hard disks that will represent the physical devices: /dev/vdb and /dev/vdc. The operating system will provide a logical device (block type) that will interface the access from the user space. Writing requests to the logical device will result in two writes, one for each hard disk. Hard disks are not partitioned. It will be considered that each hard disk has a single partition that covers the entire disk.

Each partition will store a sector along with an associated checksum (CRC32) to ensure error recovery. At each reading, the related information from both partitions is read. If a sector of the first partition has corrupt data (CRC value is wrong) then the sector on the second partition will be read; at the same time the sector of the first partition will be corrected. Similar in the case of a reading of a corrupt sector on the second partition. If a sector has incorrect CRC values on both partitions, an appropriate error code will be returned.

Important to know

To ensure error recovery, a CRC code is associated with each sector. CRC codes are stored by LOGICAL_DISK_SIZE byte of the partition (macro defined in the assignment header). The disk structure will have the following layout:

+-----------+-----------+-----------+     +---+---+---+
|  sector1  |  sector2  |  sector3  |.....|C1 |C2 |C3 |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+     +---+---+---+

where C1, C2, C3 are the values CRC sectors sector1, sector2, sector3. The CRC area is found immediately after the LOGICAL_DISK_SIZE bytes of the partition.

As a seed for CRC use 0(zero).

Implementation Details

  • the kernel module will be named ssr.ko
  • the logical device will be accessed as a block device with the major SSR_MAJOR and minor SSR_FIRST_MINOR under the name /dev/ssr (via the macro LOGICAL_DISK_NAME)
  • the virtual device (LOGICAL_DISK_NAME - /dev/ssr) will have the capacity of LOGICAL_DISK_SECTORS (use set_capacity with the struct gendisk structure)
  • the two disks are represented by the devices /dev/vdb, respectively /dev/vdc, defined by means of macros PHYSICAL_DISK1_NAME, respectively PHYSICAL_DISK2_NAME
  • to work with the struct block _device structure associated with a physical device, you can use the blkdev_get_by_path and blkdev_put functions
  • for the handling of requests from the user space, we recommend not to use a request_queue, but to do processing at struct bio level using the submit_bio field of struct block_device_operations
  • since data sectors are separated from CRC sectors you will have to build separate bio structures for data and CRC values
  • to allocate a struct bio for physical disks you can use bio_alloc(); to add data pages to bio use alloc_page() and bio_add_page()
  • to free up the space allocated for a struct bio you need to release the pages allocated to the bio (using the __free_page() macro ) and call bio_put()
  • when generating a struct bio structure, consider that its size must be multiple of the disk sector size (KERNEL_SECTOR_SIZE)
  • to send a request to a block device and wait for it to end, you can use the submit_bio_wait() function
  • use bio_endio() to signal the completion of processing a bio structure
  • for the CRC32 calculation you can use the crc32() macro provided by the kernel
  • useful macro definitions can be found in the assignment support header
  • a single request processing function for block devices can be active at one time in a call stack (more details here). You will need to submit requests for physical devices in a kernel thread; we recommend using workqueues.
  • For a quick run, use a single bio to batch send the read/write request for CRC values for adjacent sectors. For example, if you need to send requests for CRCs in sectors 0, 1, ..., 7, use a single bio, not 8 bios.
  • our recommendations are not mandatory (any solution that meets the requirements of the assignment is accepted)


In order to simplify the assignment evaluation process, but also to reduce the mistakes of the submitted assignments, the assignment evaluation will be done automatically with with the help of public tests that are in the new infrastructure. For local testing, use the following commands:

$ git clone
$ cd linux/tools/labs
$ LABS=assignments/3-raid make skels
$ #the development of the assignment will be written in the 3-raid directory
$ make build
$ make copy
$ make boot

If, as a result of the testing process, the sectors on both disks contain invalid data, resulting in read errors that make the module impossible to use, you will need to redo the two disks in the virtual machine using the commands:

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/vdb bs=1M
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/vdc bs=1M

You can also get the same result using the following command to start the virtual machine:

$ rm disk{1,2}.img; make


To increase your chances of getting the highest grade, read and follow the Linux kernel coding style described in the Coding Style document.

Also, use the following static analysis tools to verify the code:

$ linux/scripts/ --no-tree --terse -f /path/to/your/file.c
  • sparse
$ sudo apt-get install sparse
$ cd linux
$ make C=2 /path/to/your/file.c
  • cppcheck
$ sudo apt-get install cppcheck
$ cppcheck /path/to/your/file.c


Information about assigments penalties can be found on the General Directions page.

In exceptional cases (the assigment passes the tests by not complying with the requirements) and if the assigment does not pass all the tests, the grade will may decrease more than mentioned above.

Submitting the assigment

The assignment archive will be submitted to vmchecker, according to the rules on the rules page.

From the vmchecker interface choose the Driver RAID option for this assigment.


  • implementation of the RAID software in the Linux kernel

We recommend that you use gitlab to store your homework. Follow the directions in README and on the dedicated git wiki page.

The resources for the assignment can also be found in the so2-assignments repo on GitHub. The repo contains a Bash script that helps you create a private repository on the faculty GitLab instance. Follow the tips from the README and on the dedicated Wiki page.


For questions about the assigment, you can consult the mailing list archives or send an e-mail (you must be registered). Please follow and follow the tips for use of the list.

Before you ask a question, make sure that:

  • you have read the statement of the assigment well
  • the question is not already presented on the FAQ page
  • the answer cannot be found in the mailing list archives